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This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Kazak. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.

Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The city of Baikonur has a special status because it is being leased until to Russia for the Baikonur cosmodrome.

Today's Kazak is a modern shape of old Caucasian rugs which strictly adheres to traditional design elements of the Caucasus. It has elements such as the stepped hooked polygons, geometrical medallions and rosettes, presented in more stylized manner and with a new dimension.
Kazakh definition, a member of a nomadic Muslim people living mainly in Kazakhstan. See more.
Moussa's the star role as Celts play out Kazak II; CHAMPIONS LEAGUE CRUNCH DAILY RECORD Thursday, August 4, MORE AT imaginary-7mbh1j.cf NOW FOR THE PLAY-OFFS Not even Spielberg could have written a script to rival this one.
Kazak. Kazak rugs are known for their harmonious geometric designs which are inspired from older Russian and Caucasian rugs. Hand-knotted Kazak rugs are knotted in Pakistan using high quality hand spun wool and natural dyes.
Kazak. Kazak rugs are known for their harmonious geometric designs which are inspired from older Russian and Caucasian rugs. Hand-knotted Kazak rugs are knotted in Pakistan using high quality hand spun wool and natural dyes.

Kazak rugs have many beautiful colors and designs. The Kazak rugs that Catalina rug offers are hand knotted and made with excellent quality hand spun wool.

Now former University pals James Button and Kristaps Kazaks are turning their considerable talents to producing promotional video content under the guise of their creative new film company State of Flow. Award-winning film makers zoom in on the Welsh business market.

The cultural event was held at the Pyramid stadium, apex is glazed with doves fluttering in a blue sky beneath a yellow sun - blue and yellow being the colors of Kazakhstan's flag and it has a seating capacity of and the stadium was fully packed and in fact the Kazaks enjoyed every bit of the cultural program.

Kazaks enjoyed Sri Lankan cultural program. Meanwhile, "Swedbank" chief economist Martins Kazaks pointed out that Latvia's experience cannot be used in Greece's case, due to different export structures. Greece should follow Baltic example from wire reports. In this reference, Stern and Kazaks , nutrition researchers at the U. Obesity; a reference handbook. England were beginning to look as impotent against the Kazaks as they were impressive in Croatia.

Nor will they expect England's long, long trip to the fringes of China and Mongolia to play the Kazaks next June to be an easy ride after an astonishing night at Wembley. In his trips to Kazakstan, Morizumi found that many Kazaks were ignorant about the dangers of radiation released over the 40 years of nuclear testing. Photographer captures human cost of nuclear testing. Jacqueline Kazaks walked along a golden meadow above the Point Reyes National Seashore, surrounded by charcoal tree trunks left like skeletons in the wake of the huge Vision fire of As the bank's chief economist Martins Kazaks explains, the predicted 4 percent rise in GDP is according to the "dawdling scenario," but if the government carries out structural reforms and improves the business environment, the level of growth could be higher.

During the 19th century about , Russians immigrated to Kazakhstan, and about one million Slavs, Germans, Jews, and others immigrated to the region during the first third of the 20th century. The competition for land and water that ensued between the Kazakh and the newcomers caused great resentment against colonial rule during the final years of the Russian Empire. The most serious uprising, the Central Asian Revolt , occurred in The Kazakh attacked Russian and Cossack settlers and military garrisons.

The revolt resulted in a series of clashes and in brutal massacres committed by both sides. Soviet repression of the traditional elite, along with forced collectivisation in the late s and s, brought famine and high fatalities, leading to unrest see also: Famine in Kazakhstan of — The republic was one of the destinations for exiled and convicted persons, as well as for mass resettlements, or deportations effected by the central USSR authorities during the s and s, such as approximately , Volga Germans deported from the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in September—October , later the Greeks , and Crimean Tatars.

Deportees and prisoners were interned in some of the biggest Soviet labour camps the Gulag , including ALZhIR camp outside Astana, which was reserved for the wives of men considered "enemies of the people". The Soviet-German War — led to an increase in industrialisation and mineral extraction in support of the war effort. In , Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev initiated the Virgin Lands Campaign designed to turn the traditional pasture-lands of Kazakhstan into a major grain-producing region for the Soviet Union.

The Virgin Lands policy brought mixed results. However, along with later modernisations under Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev in power — , it accelerated the development of the agricultural sector, which remains the source of livelihood for a large percentage of Kazakhstan's population. In , the USSR government, as part of its atomic bomb project , founded an atomic bomb test site near the north-eastern town of Semipalatinsk , where the first Soviet nuclear bomb test was conducted in Hundreds of nuclear tests were conducted until and had negative ecological and biological consequences.

Governmental troops suppressed the unrest, several people were killed, and many demonstrators were jailed. In the waning days of Soviet rule, discontent continued to grow and found expression under Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev 's policy of glasnost.

On 25 October , Kazakhstan declared its sovereignty on its territory as a republic within the Soviet Union. Following the August aborted coup attempt in Moscow, Kazakhstan declared independence on 16 December , thus becoming the last Soviet republic to declare independence. Ten days later, the Soviet Union itself ceased to exist. Kazakhstan's communist-era leader, Nursultan Nazarbayev , became the country's first President. Emphasis was on converting the country's economy to a market economy while political reforms lagged behind achievements in the economy.

The government moved the capital in , from Almaty , Kazakhstan's largest city, where it had been established under the Soviet Union, to Astana. As it extends across both sides of the Ural River , considered the dividing line with the European continent, Kazakhstan is one of only two landlocked countries in the world that has territory in two continents the other is Azerbaijan. While it was part of the Soviet Union , Kazakhstan lost some of its territory to China's Xinjiang autonomous region [39] and some to Uzbekistan's Karakalpakstan autonomous republic.

While located primarily in Asia, a small portion of Kazakhstan is also located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe. Kazakhstan's terrain extends west to east from the Caspian Sea to the Altay Mountains and north to south from the plains of Western Siberia to the oases and deserts of Central Asia.

The steppe is characterised by large areas of grasslands and sandy regions. The steep canyon slopes, columns and arches rise to heights of between and metres and feet. The inaccessibility of the canyon provided a safe haven for a rare ash tree , Fraxinus sogdiana, that survived the Ice Age and is now also grown in some other areas. Kazakhstan has an abundant supply of accessible mineral and fossil fuel resources. According to some estimates, [41] Kazakhstan has the second largest uranium , chromium , lead , and zinc reserves, the third largest manganese reserves, the fifth largest copper reserves, and ranks in the top ten for coal , iron , and gold.

It is also an exporter of diamonds. Perhaps most significant for economic development, Kazakhstan also currently has the 11th largest proven reserves of both petroleum and natural gas. In total, there are deposits with over 2. Oil explorations have shown that the deposits on the Caspian shore are only a small part of a much larger deposit. It is said that 3. Overall the estimate of Kazakhstan's oil deposits is 6.

However, there are only 3 refineries within the country, situated in Atyrau , [43] Pavlodar , and Shymkent. These are not capable of processing the total crude output so much of it is exported to Russia.

Kazakhstan also possesses large deposits of phosphorite. Kazakhstan has an 'extreme' continental climate , with warm summers and very cold winters. Indeed, Astana is the second coldest capital city in the world after Ulaanbaatar.

Precipitation varies between arid and semi-arid conditions, the winter being particularly dry. There are ten nature reserves and ten national parks in Kazakhstan that provide safe haven for many rare and endangered plants and animals. Common plants are Astragalus , Gagea , Allium , Carex and Oxytropis ; endangered plant species include native wild apple Malus sieversii , wild grape Vitis vinifera and several wild tulip species e. Tulipa greigii and rare onion species Allium karataviense , also Iris willmottiana and Tulipa kaufmanniana.

Common mammals include the wolf , red fox , corsac fox , moose , argali the largest species of sheep , Eurasian lynx , Pallas's cat , and snow leopards , several of which are protected.

Kazakhstan is divided into fourteen regions Kazakh: The regions are subdivided into districts Kazakh: The cities of Almaty and Astana have status "state importance" and do not belong to any region. The city of Baikonur has a special status because it is being leased until to Russia for the Baikonur cosmodrome.

Each region is headed by an akim regional governor appointed by the president. District akim s [ akimi? Kazakhstan's government relocated its capital from Almaty, established under the Soviet Union, to Astana on 10 December Municipalities exist at each level of administrative division in Kazakhstan.

Cities of republican, regional, and district significance are designated as urban inhabited localiies; all others are designated rural. Cities of these two levels may be divided into city districts. Kazakhstan is a unitary republic ; its only President to date is Nursultan Nazarbayev. There are three deputy prime ministers and sixteen ministers in the Cabinet.

Kazakhstan has a bicameral Parliament composed of the Majilis the lower house and Senate the upper house. The Senate has 47 members. Two senators are selected by each of the elected assemblies Maslikhats of Kazakhstan's sixteen principal administrative divisions fourteen regions plus the cities of Astana and Almaty.

The President appoints the remaining seven senators. Majilis deputies and the government both have the right of legislative initiative, though the government proposes most legislation considered by the Parliament. Elections to the Majilis in September , yielded a lower house dominated by the pro-government Otan Party , headed by President Nazarbayev.

Two other parties considered sympathetic to the president, including the agrarian-industrial bloc AIST and the Asar Party , founded by President Nazarbayev's daughter, won most of the remaining seats.

Opposition parties, which were officially registered and competed in the elections, won a single seat during elections. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe was monitoring the election, which it said fell short of international standards. On 4 December , Nursultan Nazarbayev was re-elected in an apparent landslide victory. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE concluded the election did not meet international standards despite some improvements in the administration of the election.

Opposition parties made accusations of serious irregularities in the election. In , President Nazarbayev rejected a call from supporters to hold a referendum to keep him in office until He insisted on presidential elections for a five-year term. In a vote held on 3 April , President Nazarbayev received On 26 April , the 5th presidential election was held in Kazakhstan. The nations of Kazakhstan, Russia, Belarus , Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan established the Eurasian Economic Community in , to revive earlier efforts to harmonise trade tariffs and to create a free trade zone under a customs union.

On 1 December , it was announced that Kazakhstan had been chosen to chair the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe for the year The official response of the Assembly was that Kazakhstan could apply for full membership, because it is partially located in Europe, [ citation needed ] but that they would not be granted any status whatsoever at the Council until their democracy and human rights records improved.

Since independence in , Kazakhstan has pursued what is known as the "multivector foreign policy" Kazakh: They pledged to intensify bilateral co-operation to promote nuclear safety and non-proliferation, regional stability in Central Asia, economic prosperity, and universal values.

In April , President Obama called President Nazarbayev and discussed many cooperative efforts regarding nuclear security, including securing nuclear material from the BN reactor. They reviewed progress on meeting goals that the two presidents established during their bilateral meeting at the Nuclear Security Summit in The military personnel, ranking from captain to colonel, had to go through a specialised UN training; they had to be fluent in English and skilled in using specialised military vehicles.

In , Kazakhstan gave Ukraine humanitarian aid during the conflict with Russian-backed rebels. Kazakhstan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs released a statement on 26 January These units became the core of Kazakhstan's new military. It acquired all the units of the 40th Army the former 32nd Army and part of the 17th Army Corps, including six land-force divisions, storage bases, the 14th and 35th air-landing brigades, two rocket brigades, two artillery regiments and a large amount of equipment which had been withdrawn from over the Urals after the signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.

Since the late 20th century, the Kazakhstan Army has focused on expanding the number of its armoured units. Since , armoured units have expanded from to 1, in A small naval force is maintained on the Caspian Sea. Kazakhstan sent 49 military engineers to Iraq to assist the US post-invasion mission in Iraq. The latter is considered as the most important part of KNB.

Its director is Nurtai Abykayev. Since the joint tactical peacekeeping exercise "Steppe Eagle" has been hosted by the Kazakhstan government.

During the Steppe Eagle exercises, the Kazbat peacekeeping battalion operates within a multinational force under a unified command within multidisciplinary peacekeeping operations, with NATO and the US Military. Kazakhstan's human rights situation is described as poor by independent observers. The Human Rights Watch report on Kazakhstan said that the country "heavily restricts freedom of assembly, speech, and religion.

In , authorities closed newspapers, jailed or fined dozens of people after peaceful but unsanctioned protests, and fined or detained worshipers for practicing religion outside state controls. Government critics, including opposition leader Vladimir Kozlov , remained in detention after unfair trials. In mid, Kazakhstan adopted new criminal, criminal executive, criminal procedural, and administrative codes, and a new law on trade unions, which contain articles restricting fundamental freedoms and are incompatible with international standards.

Torture remains common in places of detention. The executive branch sharply limited judicial independence. Prosecutors enjoyed a quasi-judicial role and had the authority to suspend court decisions. Corruption was evident at every stage of the judicial process. Although judges were among the most highly paid government employees, lawyers and human rights monitors alleged that judges, prosecutors, and other officials solicited bribes in exchange for favorable rulings in the majority of criminal cases.

In an effort to increase transparency in the criminal justice and court system, and improve human rights, Kazakhstan intends to digitize all investigative, prosecutorial and court records by Homosexuality has been legal in Kazakhstan since ; though it is still socially unaccepted in most parts. Kazakhstan has the largest and strongest performing economy in Central Asia. Buoyed by high world crude oil prices, GDP growth figures were between 8.

Kazakhstan is a leading exporter of uranium. The government has continued to follow a conservative fiscal policy by controlling budget spending and accumulating oil revenue savings in its Oil Fund — Samruk-Kazyna. The global financial crisis forced Kazakhstan to increase its public borrowing to support the economy. Public debt increased to Between and , the government achieved an overall fiscal surplus of 4. Since , Kazakhstan has sought to manage strong inflows of foreign currency without sparking inflation.

Inflation has not been under strict control, however, registering 6. This change in status recognised substantive market economy reforms in the areas of currency convertibility, wage rate determination, openness to foreign investment, and government control over the means of production and allocation of resources. Kazakhstan weathered the global financial crisis well, [ citation needed ] by combining fiscal relaxation with monetary stabilisation.

In , the government introduced large-scale support measures such as the recapitalisation of banks and support for the real estate and agricultural sectors, as well as for small and medium enterprises SMEs. In September , Kazakhstan became the first country in the CIS to receive an investment grade credit rating from a major international credit rating agency.

There has been a reduction in the ratio of debt to GDP. The ratio of total governmental debt to GDP in , was Economic growth , combined with earlier tax and financial sector reforms, has dramatically improved government finance from the budget deficit level of 3.

Government revenues grew from In , Kazakhstan adopted a new tax code in an effort to consolidate these gains. Kazakhstan furthered its reforms by adopting a new land code on 20 June , and a new customs code on 5 April Energy is the leading economic sector. Production of crude oil and natural gas condensate from the oil and gas basins of Kazakhstan amounted to Kazakhstan raised oil and gas condensate exports to Gas production in Kazakhstan in , amounted to Major oil and gas fields and recoverable oil reserves are Tengiz with 7 billion barrels 1.

Kazakhstan instituted an ambitious pension reform program in There are 11 saving pension funds in the country.

The State Accumulating Pension Fund, the only state-owned fund, was privatised in The country's unified financial regulatory agency oversees and regulates the pension funds.

The growing demand of the pension funds for quality investment outlets triggered rapid development of the debt securities market. Pension fund capital is being invested almost exclusively in corporate and government bonds , including government of Kazakhstan Eurobonds. The government of Kazakhstan is studying a project to create a unified national pension fund and transfer all the accounts from the private pension funds into it. The banking system of Kazakhstan is developing rapidly and the system's capitalisation now [ when?

The National Bank has introduced deposit insurance in its campaign to strengthen the banking sector. Due to troubling and non-performing bad assets the bank sector yet is at risk to lose stability. Kookmin and UniCredit have both recently entered the Kazakhstan's financial services market through acquisitions and stake -building. According to the —11 World Economic Forum in Global Competitiveness Report, Kazakhstan was ranked 72nd in the world in economic competitiveness.

During the first half of , Kazakhstan's fixed investment increased 7. In , Aftenposten quoted the human-rights activist and lawyer Denis Jivaga as saying that there is an " oil fund in Kazakhstan, but nobody knows how the income is spent". GDP growth in January—September was 5. Its arable land has the second highest availability per inhabitant 1. Chief livestock products are dairy products , leather , meat , and wool.

The country's major crops include wheat , barley , cotton , and rice. Wheat exports , a major source of hard currency , rank among the leading commodities in Kazakhstan's export trade. In Kazakhstan harvested Kazakhstani agriculture still has many environmental problems from mismanagement during its years in the Soviet Union. Some Kazakh wine is produced in the mountains to the east of Almaty. Kazakhstan is thought to be one of the places that the apple originated, particularly the wild ancestor of Malus domestica , Malus sieversii.

The region where it is thought to originate is called Almaty: KTZ cooperates with French loco manufacturer Alstom in developing Kazakhstan's railway infrastructure. Alstom has more than staff and two joint ventures with KTZ and its subsidiary in Kazakhstan. It is the only repairing center in Central Asia and the Caucasus. As the Kazakhstani rail system was designed during the Soviet era, rail routes were designed ignoring intersoviet borders and to the needs of Soviet planning.

This has caused anamolies such as the route from Ural'sk to Aktobe now passes briefly through Russian territory. It also means that routes might not suit modern-day Kazakhstani needs. Astana Nurly Zhol railway station , the most modern railway station in Kazakhstan, was opened in Astana on May 31, The opening of the station coincided with the start of the Expo international exhibition.

According to Kazakhstan Railways KTZ , the ,m2 station is expected to be used by 54 trains a day and has capacity to handle 35, passengers a day.

There is a small 8. A second and third metro lines are planned in the future. The second line would intersect with the first line at Alatau and Zhibek Zholy stations.

The general contractor is Almatymetrokurylys. The extension includes five new stations, and will connect the downtown area of Almaty with Kalkaman in the suburbs. Its length will be 8. The first phase the current phase will be the addition of two stations: Sairan and Moscow, a length of 2. There was a tram system of 10 lines which operated from to The Astana Metro system is under construction. It's been a long time coming and the project was abandoned at one point in , [] but an agreement was signed on 7 May for the project to go ahead.

It had a fleet of 50 working tram cars. Its fleet of trams are due to be replaced and in , the city announced plans to purchase new trams. In the European Commission blacklisted all Kazakh air carriers with a sole exception of Air Astana. Since then, Kazakhstan has consistently taken measures to modernize and revamp its air safety oversight.

Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country by area and the largest landlocked country. Today, tourism is not a major component of the economy. As of , tourism has accounted for 0. The WEF ranks Kazakhstan 81st in its report, which is four positions higher compared to the previous period.

In , Kazakhstan ranked 51st in the world in terms of number of tourist arrivals. In total 1. The Kazakh Government, long characterized as authoritarian with a history of human rights abuses and suppression of political opposition, [15] has started an initiative named the "Tourism Industry Development Plan ". This initiative aims to establish five tourism clusters in Kazakhstan: The government has set the goals that a transition to the Green Economy in Kazakhstan occur by The government of Kazakhstan has set prices for energy produced from renewable sources.

The price of 1 kilowatt-hour for energy produced by wind power plants was set at The price for 1 kilowatt-hour produced by small hydro-power plants is Foreign direct investment FDI plays a more significant role in the national economy than in most other former Soviet republics. President Nazarbayev signed into law tax concessions to promote foreign direct investment which include a year exemption from corporation tax, an 8-year exemption from property tax, and a year freeze on most other taxes.

The banking industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan experienced a pronounced boom and bust cycle over s decade. After several years of rapid expansion in the mids, the banking industry collapsed in Although the Russian and Kazakhstani banking systems share several common features, there are also some fundamental differences. Banks in Kazakhstan have experienced a lengthy period of political stability and economic growth.

Banking technology and personnel qualifications alike are stronger in Kazakhstan than in Russia. On the negative side, past stability in Kazakhstan arose from the concentration of virtually all political power in the hands of a single individual — the key factor in any assessment of system or country risk. The potential is there for serious disturbances if and when authority passes into new hands.

In October , Kazakhstan introduced its first overseas dollar bonds in 14 years. The housing market of Kazakhstan has grown since On 11 November , President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev delivered an unexpected state-of-the-nation address in Astana at an extended session of the Political Council of the Nur Otan party, introducing a "Nurly Jol" Bright Path , a new economic policy that implies massive state investment in infrastructure over the next several years. Kazakhstan achieved its goal of entering the top 50 most competitive countries in , and has maintained its position in the — World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report that was published at the beginning of September Public research is largely confined to institutes, with universities making only a token contribution.

Research institutes receive their funding from national research councils under the umbrella of the Ministry of Education and Science. Their output, however, tends to be disconnected from market needs.

In the business sector, few industrial enterprises conduct research themselves. By , this ratio stood at 0. It will be difficult to reach the target as long as economic growth remains strong. In this document, Kazakhstan gives itself 15 years to evolve into a knowledge economy. New sectors are to be created during each five-year plan. The first of these, covering the years —, focused on developing industrial capacity in car manufacturing, aircraft engineering and the production of locomotives, passenger and cargo railroad cars.

During the second five-year plan to , the goal is to develop export markets for these products. To enable Kazakhstan to enter the world market of geological exploration, the country intends to increase the efficiency of traditional extractive sectors such as oil and gas. It also intends to develop rare earth metals, given their importance for electronics, laser technology, communication and medical equipment. The second five-year plan coincides with the development of the Business roadmap for small and medium-sized enterprises SMEs , which makes provision for the allocation of grants to SMEs in the regions and for microcredit.

The government and the National Chamber of Entrepreneurs also plan to develop an effective mechanism to help start-ups. During subsequent five-year plans to , new industries will be established in fields such as mobile, multi-media, nano- and space technologies, robotics, genetic engineering and alternative energy. Food processing enterprises will be developed with an eye to turning the country into a major regional exporter of beef, dairy and other agricultural products.

Low-return, water-intensive crop varieties will be replaced with vegetable, oil and fodder products. Experimental agrarian and innovational clusters will be established and drought-resistant genetically modified crops developed. The US Census Bureau International Database lists the current population of Kazakhstan as 15,,, while United Nations sources such as the revision of the World Population Prospects [5] give an estimate of 17,, Official estimates put the population of Kazakhstan at The population estimate is 6.

The decline in population that began after has been arrested and possibly reversed. Men and women make up Ethnic Kazakhs are Some minorities such as Ukrainians , Koreans , Volga Germans 1. Some of the largest Soviet labour camps Gulag existed in the country.

Significant Russian immigration also connected with Virgin Lands Campaign and Soviet space program during the Khrushchev era. After the break-up of the Soviet Union , most of them emigrated to Germany. These people are now known as Koryo-saram. The s were marked by the emigration of many of the country's Russians and Volga Germans , a process that began in the s. This has made indigenous Kazakhs the largest ethnic group. Additional factors in the increase in the Kazakhstani population are higher birthrates and immigration of ethnic Kazakhs from China, Mongolia , and Russia.

Kazakhstan is officially a bilingual country. Kazakh , part of the Kipchak family of Turkic languages [] spoken natively by The government announced in January that the Latin alphabet will replace Cyrillic as the writing system for the Kazakh language by English, as well as Turkish, have gained popularity among younger people since the collapse of the Soviet Union. Education across Kazakhstan is conducted in either Kazakh, Russian, or both.

Religious freedoms are guaranteed by Article 39 of Kazakhstan's Constitution. Islam is the largest religion in Kazakhstan, followed by Orthodox Christianity. After decades of religious suppression by the Soviet Union , the coming of independence witnessed a surge in expression of ethnic identity, partly through religion.

The free practice of religious beliefs and the establishment of full freedom of religion led to an increase of religious activity. Hundreds of mosques , churches , and other religious structures were built in the span of a few years, with the number of religious associations rising from in to 4, today.

Some figures show that non-denominational Muslims [] form the majority, while others indicate that most Muslims in the country are Sunnis following the Hanafi school. There are also some Ahmadi Muslims. One quarter of the population is Russian Orthodox, including ethnic Russians, Ukrainians and Belarusians.

The Russian Orthodox Christmas is recognized as a national holiday in Kazakhstan. According to the Census data, there are very few Christians outside the Slavic and Germanic ethnic groups: Education is universal and mandatory through to the secondary level and the adult literacy rate is Education consists of three main phases: Vocational Education usually lasts 3 or 4 years.

These levels can be followed in one institution or in different ones e. Recently, several secondary schools, specialised schools, magnet schools , gymnasiums , lyceums and linguistic and technical gymnasiums have been founded.

Secondary professional education is offered in special professional or technical schools , lyceums or colleges and vocational schools. At present, there are universities , academies and institutes , conservatories , higher schools and higher colleges. There are three main levels: With the adoption of the Laws on Education and on Higher Education, a private sector has been established and several private institutions have been licensed.

The largest number of student loans come from Almaty, Astana and Kyzylorda. The training and skills development programs in Kazakhstan are also supported by international organisations.

Before the Russian colonisation, the Kazakhs had a highly developed culture based on their nomadic pastoral economy. Islam was introduced into the region with the arrival of the Arabs in the 8th century. It initially took hold in the southern parts of Turkestan and spread northward. The Golden Horde further propagated Islam amongst the tribes in the region during the 14th century. Kazakhstan is home to a large number of prominent contributors to literature, science and philosophy: Tourism is a rapidly growing industry in Kazakhstan and it is joining the international tourism networking.

TRI is functioning as a link between three regions: Kazakh literature is defined as 'the body of literature , both oral and written, produced in the Kazakh language by the Kazakh people of Central Asia '. There is some overlap with several complementary themes, including the literature of Turkic tribes that inhabited Kazakhstan over the course of the history and literature written by ethnic Kazakhs.

According to Chinese written sources of 6th—8th centuries CE, Turkic tribes of Kazakhstan had oral poetry tradition. These came from earlier periods, and were primarily transmitted by bards: Since at least the 17th century, Kazakh bards could be divided in two main categories: Initially created around 9th century CE, they were passed on through generations in oral form.

The legendary tales were recorded by Turkish authors in 14—16th centuries C. The preeminent role in the development of modern literary Kazakh belongs to Abai Qunanbaiuly Kazakh: Abai's major work is The Book of Words Kazakh: The literary magazines Ay Qap published between and in Arabic script and Qazaq published between and played an important role in the development of the intellectual and political life among early 20th-century Kazakhs.

The folk instrument orchestra was named after Kurmangazy Sagyrbayuly , a famous composer and dombra player from the 19th century. The Musical-Dramatic Training College, founded in , was the first institute of higher education for music. The Foundation Asyl Mura is archivating and publishing historical recordings of great samples of Kazakh music both traditional and classical.

The leading Conservatoire is in Almaty, the Qurmanghazy Conservatoire. It currently competes with the national conservatoire in Astana, Kazakhstans capital. When referring to traditional Kazakh music, authentic folklore must be separated from "folklorism".

The latter denotes music executed by academically trained performers who aim at preserving the traditional music for coming generations. As far as can be reconstructed, the music of Kazakhstan from the period before a strong Russian influence consists of Instrumental music and Vocal music. Instrumental music, with the pieces "Küy" being performed by soloists. Text is often seen in the background or "program" for the music, as a lot of Küy titles refer to stories.

Vocal music, either as part of a ceremony such as a wedding mainly performed by women , or as part of a feast. Here we might divide into subgenres: The Russian influence on the music life in Kazakhstan can be seen in two spheres: First, the introduction of musical academic institutions such as concert houses with opera stages, conservatories, where the European music was performed and taught, second, by trying to incorporate Kazakh traditional music into these academic structures.

Controlled by the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union , Kazakhstan's folk and classical traditions became connected with ethnic Russian music and Western European music. Prior to the 20th century, Kazakh folk music was collected and studied by ethnographic research teams including composers , music critics and musicologists.

In the first part of the 19th century, Kazakh music was transcribed in linear notation. Some composers of this era set Kazakh folk songs to Russian-style European classical music. The Kazakhs themselves, however, did not write their own music in notation until Later, as part of the Soviet Union, Kazakh folk culture was encouraged in a sanitized manner designed to avoid political and social unrest. The result was a bland derivative of real Kazakh folk music.

In , Aleksandr Zatayevich , a Russian official, created major works of art music with melodies and other elements of Kazakh folk music. Beginning in and accelerating in the s, he also adapted traditional Kazakh instruments for use in Russian-style ensembles, such as by increasing the number of frets and strings.

Soon, these styles of modern orchestral playing became the only way for musicians to officially play; Kazakh folk was turned into patriotic, professional and socialist endeavors [2]. The current situation could be described as the effort to rediscover the traditional music as it had been practised before the heavy influence of European musical styles. Although the quality of the performances and the striving for authenticity cannot be ignored, it is for methodological reasons important to remember that the contemporary musicians performing among traditional folk music are all well trained professionals Rauchan Orazbaeva, Ramazan Stamgazi.

Another very challenging aspect arises from the young composers generation, and the rock and jazz musicians, as they aim to incorporate their traditional heritage into the music they learned from the western cultures, thus forming a new stage of "ethnic contemporary classics", respectively ethnic rock or jazz music that sounds distinctly Kazakh. For the classical sector outstanding: Aqtoty Raimkulova, Turan ensemble ; for jazz: Roksonaki, Urker , Ulytau , Alda span.

In the national cuisine, livestock meat can be cooked in a variety of ways and is usually served with a wide assortment of traditional bread products. Refreshments often include black tea and traditional milk-derived drinks such as ayran , shubat and kymyz.

A traditional Kazakh dinner involves a multitude of appetisers on the table, followed by a soup and one or two main courses such as pilaf and beshbarmak. They also drink their national beverage, which consists of fermented mare's milk. Kazakhstan consistently performs in Olympic competitions. It is especially successful in boxing. This has brought some attention to the Central Asian nation, and increased world awareness of its athletes.

Dmitry Karpov and Olga Rypakova are among the most notable kazakhstani athletics. Dmitry Karpov is a distinguished decathlete, taking bronze in both the Summer Olympics , and the and World Athletics Championships. Olga Rypakova is an athlete, specialized in triple jump women's , taking silver in the World Championships in Athletics and Gold in the Summer Olympics.

Kazakhstan's city of Almaty submitted twice bid for the Winter Olympics: In and again for the Winter Olympics. Astana and Almaty hosted the Asian Winter Games. Football is the most popular sport in Kazakhstan.

The Kazakhs probably began using this name during either the 15th or 16th century. There are many theories on the origin of the word Kazakh or Qazaq. KAYAK searches hundreds of other travel sites at once to find the information you need to make the right decisions on flights, hotels & rental cars. an Oriental rug in bold colors with geometric designs or stylized plant and animal forms.

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